4o8 HISTORY OF WESTERN EDUCATION be well if the children could be brought up on a desert island away from artistic example of any sort. In practice this means a minimizing of the teacher's guidance, " The more the teacher holds himself aloof," he says, " the better for the class."* His own not quite consistent method is to let the learner do the work that appeals to him in his own way, and to refrain from comments and suggestions till after this independent effort. The result is that his pupil's drawings show vigorous personal performance on the basis of a common technique, presumably derived from their master. And so long as children are not brought up on desert islands no method, however free, can have, or need seek, any better result. 8. SCIENTIFIC PEDAGOGY The movement for the individualizing of education through special methods of learning and teaching has been reinforced by the remarkable development of educational science in the early Twentieth Century. Child Study gave promise of furnishing the teacher with a science of childhood capable of illuminating the work of the school, but after the first enthusiasm for it was past it became evident that it had disappointed expectations. The information it gave about the ways of children was too general to be of much use in dealing with the individual child; and the statistical foundations on which its conclusions had been reared were, to say the least, rather shaky. With the turn of the Century a fresh start was made. The work of Sir Francis Galton and Karl Pearson furnished the social sciences with a sound statistical method; and the invention of a Measuring Scale of Intelligence by Alfred Binet (1857-1911) furnished a potent instrument for the investigation of human capacity. The combination of the two has brought within sight the exact know- ledge of the child and his work which is necessary both for the adaptation of instruction to the individual learner and for the employment of education for the furtherance of social purposes, Binet was a psychologist of rare genius, greatly interested in the concrete applications of psychology, and capable of getting remarkable results by very simple means. Some of his finest * The New Era, April and October, 1923.